Explore our guide to ensure Book 15 compliant crosswalks in your community
In Ontario, Canada, the Ontario Traffic Manual (OTM) is the guiding document for transportation practitioners created to promote uniformity in design, application, and operation of traffic control devices and systems across the province. It is the only formal document of its type in North America. Made up of 22 Books, the OTM is being generated and updated over time.
Book 15 basics
In 2016, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation unveiled Book 15, Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. This book provides practical guidance and application information on planning, designing, and operating pedestrian roadway crossing treatments and is a response to concerns over the cost of maintaining standard pedestrian crossover (PXO) or traffic control signals. Therefore, the book includes new PXO layouts for low-speed, low-volume roads, creating options for municipalities looking into non-signalized pedestrian crossings.
Carmanah’s solar crosswalk beacons are a perfect fit for these types of crossings—especially in existing crosswalk locations—because they:
- Are free from trenching, cabling, and in-ground wiring
- Are easy to mount or retrofit onto a range of square and round poles
- Improve driver compliance to produce the highest yield rate per dollar spent on the system
Pedestrian crossovers are marked crosswalks identified by signs and pavement markings. Pedestrians, vehicles, and cyclists must all understand the rules of the road at these crosswalks to ensure safety for everyone.
Pedestrians must exercise due care and cross only when traffic has come to a complete stop. If the PXO has a flashing beacon, the corresponding button should be pressed to activate it. The beacon will help increase driver awareness—see our Approvals and Compliance page for studies on the effects of beacons.
Vehicles must watch for pedestrians, be prepared to stop, and only start moving again once the pedestrian has cleared the roadway.
Cyclists must follow the same rules as vehicles. Cyclists wishing to cross at the PXO should dismount and walk the bike across.
Types of PXOs
There are four different types of PXOs. Learn about the requirements, application, and Carmanah flashing beacon solutions available for each one. The full configuration requirements for each can be found in the Ontario Traffic Manual Book 15 document.
PXO – Level 1: Type A
What they are: Level 1 Type A pedestrian crossovers include the use of regulatory signs, flashing circular amber LED beacons, internally illuminated signs and “X” pavement markings. The circular LEDs and internally illuminated signs are mounted overhead on span wire. Two circular LEDs are required to face each direction of traffic.
Where to use them: Midblock and at uncontrolled intersections.
Suitable Carmanah solutions: R820 series beacons
PXO – Level 2: Type B
What they are: Level 2 Type B pedestrian crossovers include the use of regulatory signs, rectangular rapid flashing beacons (RRFBs), and pavement markings. This configuration uses side-mounted RRFBs, along with side-mounted and overhead-mounted regulatory signs.
Where to use them: Mid-block crosswalks, uncontrolled intersections, single-lane roundabouts, and double-lane roundabouts.
PXO – Level 2: Type C
What they are: Level 2 Type C pedestrian crossovers include the use of regulatory signs, warning signs, and pavement markings. This type of pedestrian crossover only uses side-mounted regulatory signs and rectangular rapid flashing beacons (RRFBs).
Where to use them: Mid-block crosswalks (with or without a raised refuge), uncontrolled intersections (with or without a raised refuge), single-lane roundabouts, and double-lane roundabouts.
PXO – Level 2: Type D
What they are: Level 2 Type D pedestrian crossovers include the use of regulatory signs, warning signs, and pavement markings. This type of pedestrian crossover uses only side-mounted regulatory signs; flashing beacons are not required for this type of crossover.
Where to use them: Mid-block crosswalks (with or without a raised refuge), uncontrolled intersections (with or without a raised refuge), single-lane roundabouts, double-lane roundabouts, and right-turn channelization.
Suitable Carmanah solutions: No beacons required.
Get started with a PXO
Has your Ontario city recently approved a PXO in a new location, or are you upgrading an existing location? We have a downloadable, printable version of this information to share with your team. And when you’re ready, we’re happy to help answer questions about beacon requirements and the solutions we provide.
Download this article as a PDF